3D: three-dimensional
5-FU: 5-fluorouracil
5-HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine - serotonin

A: ampere (electric current)
Å: angstrom (10-10 m)
ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme
ACTH: adrenocorticotropin
ADP: adenosine diphosphate
ADPase: adenosine diphosphatase
AEBSF: 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride
AE: anion exchanger
AFP: alpha-fetoprotein
AGE: advanced glycation endproduct
AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AKT: v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog
ALT: alanine aminotransferase
AMP: adenosine monophosphate
ANA: anti nuclear antibody
ANCOVA: analysis of covariance
ANOVA: analysis of variance
anti-HAV: antibody to hepatitis A virus
anti-HBc: antibody to hepatitis B core antigen
anti-HBe: antibody to hepatitis B e antigen
anti-HBs: antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen
anti-HCV: antibody to hepatitis C virus
anti-HDV: antibody to hepatitis D (delta) virus
APACHE: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation
APTT: activated partial thromboplastin time
ASMA: anti smooth muscle antibody
AST: aspartate aminotransferase
ATP: adenosine triphosphate
ATPase: adenosine triphosphatase AUC: area under the curve

bFGF: basic fibroblast growth factor
BHK: baby hamster kidney
bid: bis in die (twice a day)
BMI: body mass index
bp: base pair
Bq: becquerel (radioactivity)
BRCA2: breast cancer 2 BSA: bovine serum albumin BUN: blood urea nitrogen
BW: body weight

C: coulomb (electric charge)
°C: degree Celsius
CA: carbonic anhydrase
CAH: chronic active hepatitis
cal: calorie(s)
cAMP: cyclic AMP
CCK: cholecystokinin
CCK-LI: cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity
cd: candela (luminous intensity)
CD: cluster of differentiation
CDAI: Crohn's disease activity index
cDNA: complementary DNA
CEA: carcinoembryonic antigen
CECT: contrast enhanced computerized tomography
CEUS: contrast enhanced ultrasonography
CFTR: cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
cGMP: guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate
CGRP: calcitonin gene-related peptide
CHAPS: 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) diethy-ammonio-1 propanesulfonate
CHO: Chinese hamster ovary
Ci: curie(s)
CI: confidence interval
c.i.: continuous infusion
CK: cytokeratin
Cmax: maximum concentration
CMV: cytomegalovirus
CNS: central nervous system
CoA: coenzyme A
Con A: concanavalin A
CONKO: Charité Onkologie
COX: cyclooxygenase
cpm: counts per minute
CPK: creatine phosphokinase
cps: counts per second
CRP: C-reactive protein
CT: computed tomography
CTP: cytidine triphosphate
CyA: cyclosporin A
cycle/min: cycle(s) per minute
cycle/s: cycle(s) per second

d: density
Da: Dalton(s) [atomic mass unit]
DAB: diaminobenzidine
DEAE: diethylaminoethyl
df: degrees of freedom
DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium
DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
DNase: deoxyribonuclease
DNP: dinitrophenyl
dpm: disintegrations per minute
dps: disintegrations per second
DTPA: diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid
DTT, dithiothreitol

ECM, extracellular matrix
ECOG: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group
EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EGD: esophagogastroduodenoscopy
EGF: epidermal growth factor
EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor
EGTA: ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethylether)- N:N'-tetraacetic acid
EIA: enzymeimmunoassay
ELAM: endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule
ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EM: electron microscopy
EMA: epithelial membrane antigen
eNO: endothelial nitric oxide
eNOS: endothelial nitric oxide synthase
EORTC: European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer
Eq: equivalent(s)
ER: endoplasmic reticulum
ERCP: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
ESPAC: European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer
ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESWL: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
ET: endothelin
EUS: endoscopic ultrasonography
eV: electron volt(s)

F: farad (capacitance)
°F: degree Fahrenheit
FACS®: registered trademark of Becton Dickinson and Company for a fluorescence-activated cell sorter
FBS: fetal bovine serum
FCS: fetal calf serum
FDA: Food and Drug Administration
FDG: fluorodeoxyglucose
FEVx: forced expiratory volume in x s
FFA: free fatty acid(s)
FFCD: Federation Francophone Cancerologie Digestive
FFPE: formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded FGF: fibroblast growth factor
FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate
FKBP12: FK506 binding protein 12
FNA: fine needle aspiration
FOLFIRI: 5-fluorouracil plus folinic acid (leucovorin) plus irinotecan
FOLFIRINOX: 5-fluorouracil plus folinic acid (leucovorin) plus irinotecan and oxaliplatin
FOLFOX: 5-fluorouracil plus folinic acid (leucovorin) plus oxaliplatin
Fr: French
FRAP: fluorescence recovery after photobleaching
FRET: fluorescence resonance energy transfer
ft: foot

g: gram
g: unit of gravity
G: gauss
GAD: glutamate decarboxylase
GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Gb: Gigabase(s)
Gd-DTPA: gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid
GGT: gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase
GHRF: growth hormone releasing factor
GIP: gastric inhibitory polypeptide
GI: gastrointestinal
GIST: gastrointestinal stromal tumors
GITSG: Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group GPCR: G protein-coupled receptor
GRP: gastrin-releasing peptide
GTP: guanosine triphosphate
Gy: gray (absorbed dose)

h: hour
H: henry (inductance)
HASTE: half-Fourier-acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo
HAV: hepatitis A virus
HbA1: glycosylated hemoglobin A1
HBcAg: hepatitis B core antigen
HBeAg: hepatitis B e antigen
HBsAg: hepatitis B surface antigen
HBSS: Hanks' balanced salt solution
HBV: hepatitis B virus
HCC: hepatocellular carcinoma
HCV: hepatitis C virus
HDL: high density lipoprotein
HDV: hepatitis D (delta) virus
H&E: hematoxylin and eosin stain
hENT: human equilibrative nucleoside transporter
HEPES: N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethane sulfonic acid
HER: human epidermal growth factor receptor
HGH: human growth hormone
HLA: human leukocyte antigen
HMG: hydroxymethylglutaryl
HMG-CoA: hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A
HPF: high-power fields
HPLC: high performance liquid chromatography
HR: hazard ratio
HRP: horseradish peroxidase
HRQoL: health related quality of life
HSF: heat shock factor
HU: Hounsfield unit(s)
Hz: hertz (cycle frequency)

i.a.: intra-arterial(ly)
IA-2: insulinoma-associated protein 2
IAPP: islet amyloid polypeptide
IBD: inflammatory bowel disease
IC50: inhibitory concentration 50%
ICAM: intercellular adhesion molecule
i.c.: intracisternal(ly)
ICU: intensive care unit
i.d.: internal diameter
ID: identifier
IDDM: insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
IDUS: intraductal ultrasound
IEF: isoelectric focusing
IEL: intraepithelial leucocyte
Ig: immunoglobulin
IGF: insulin-like growth factor
i.l.: intraluminal(ly)
IL: interleukin(s)
ILT: immunoglobulin-like transcript
i.m.: intramuscular(ly)
in: inch(es)
INF: interferon
INR: international normalized ratio
i.p.: intraperitoneal(ly)
IPMN: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm
IPMT: intraductal papillary mucinous tumor
IRB: institutional review board
IQR: interquartile range
IU: international unit(s)
i.v.: intravenous(ly)

J: joule (energy)

K: kelvin (temperature)
kat: katal (molar flow)
kb: kilobase(s)
kbp: kilobase pair(s)
kg: kilogram (mass)
Km: Michaelis constant
K-ras: Kirsten retrovirus-associated DNA sequences

L: liter(s)
LAR: long-acting release
lb: pound(s)
LDH: lactate dehydrogenase
LDL: low density lipoprotein
LES: lower esophageal sphincter
LFA-1: lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1
lm: lumen (luminous flux)
LOOCV: leave-one-out cross validation
lx: lux (luminance)

m: meter (lenght)
M: molar
mAb: monoclonal antibody
MALT: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinases
Mb: Megabase(s)
MCV: mean cell volume
MDCK: Madin-Darby canine kidney
MDCT: multi-detector computed tomography
MEM: Eagle's minimum essential medium
MEN: multiple endocrine neoplasia
MES: 2-(N-morpholino)ethane sulfonic acid
MIB1: mindbomb homolog 1
mile/h: mile(s) per hour (not mph)
min: minute(s)
MHC: major histocompatibility complex
MLC: myosin light chain
mmHg: millimeter(s) of mercury
MMP: matrix metalloproteinase
mo: month(s)
MODY: maturity onset diabetes of the young
MOF: multi-organ failure
mol: mole (amount of substance)
mol wt: molecular weight
MOPS: morpholino propane sulfonic acid
Mr: relative molecular mass
MR: magnetic resonance
MRCP: magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
MRI: magnetic resonance imaging
mRNA: messenger RNA
mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin
MUC: mucin

N: newton (force)
n: number in a study or group
NA: not applicable
NAD+: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADH: NAD+ reduced
NADP: NAD+phosphate
NADPH: NADP reduced
NANB: non-A, non-B (hepatitis)
NBD: nitrobenzoxadiazole
ND: not determined
NEPHGE: nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis
NF-kappa B: nuclear factor kappa B
NFAT: nuclear factor of activated T cells
NGF: nerve growth factor
NIDDM: not insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
NIH: US National Institute of Health (Bethesda: Maryland: USA)
No.: number
NOS: nitric oxide synthase
NP-40: Nonidet P-40
npo: nil per os (nothing by mouth)
NPV: negative predictive value
NPY: neuropeptide Y
NS: not significant NSAID: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NSCLC: non-small cell lung cancer
NSE: neuron-specific enolase

o.d.: outer diameter
od: omnes dies (every day)
OD: optical density
OR: odds ratio
osM: osmolar
osmol: osmole(s)
oz: ounce(s)

P: probability
Pa: pascal (pressure)
PACS: picture archiving and communication system
PAGE: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PanIN: pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia
PAR: protease activated receptor
PAS: periodic acid-Schiff
PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cell
PBS: phosphate-buffered saline
PCA: perchloric acid
PCR: polymerase chain reaction
PD: potential difference
PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor
PEG: polyethylene glycol
PEM: polymorphic epithelial mucin
PET: positron emission tomography
PG: prostaglandin
PGI: prostacyclin
PHI: peptide histidine isoleucine
Pi: inorganic orthophosphate
PI: phosphatidylinositol
Pipes: [1:4-piperazinebis(ethane sulfonic acid)]
PKA: protein kinase A
PKC: protein kinase C
PLC: phospholipase C
PLT: pancreolauryl test
PMN: polymorphonuclear
PMSF: phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
pNET: pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor
po: per os (oral, by mouth)
PP: pancreatic polypeptide
PPI: proton pump inhibitor
PPV: positive predictive value
prn: pro re nata (as needed)
PRSS1: protease serine 1 (trypsin I precursor)
PSA: prostate specific antigen
PSC: pancreatic stellate cell
PSP: pancreatic specific protein
PSTI: pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor
PT: prothrombin time
PTC: percutaneous transhepatic cholangiopancreatography
PTCH: Patched
PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene
PTH: parathyroid hormones
PTHP: parathyroid hormone releasing peptide
PTT: partial thromboplastin time
PUM: peanut-reactive urinary mucin
PYY: peptide YY

QALYs: quality-adjusted life years
qd: quaque die (every day)
QoL: quality of life

r: correlation coefficient
rad: radian (plane angle)
ras: retrovirus-associated DNA sequences
RAS: renin-angiotensin system
RAAS: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
RADIANT: RAD001 in Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors
RBC: red blood cell
RCT: randomized controlled trial
RECIST: Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors
RER: rough endoplasmic reticulum
RFA: radiofrequency ablation
RFLP: restriction fragment length polymorphism
RIA: radioimmunoassay
RNA: ribonucleic acid
RNase: ribonuclease
RNP: ribonucleoprotein
RNS: reactive nitrogen species
ROC: receiver operating characteristic
ROS: reactive oxygen species
rpm: revolutions per minute
RPMI: Roswell Park Memorial Institute
rps: revolutions per second
RR: relative risk
RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
RTOG: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

s: second(s)
s: sedimentation coefficient
S: siemens (conductance)
s.c.: subcutaneous(ly)
SCID: severe combined immunodeficiency
SCLC: small cell lung cancer
SD: standard deviation
SDS: sodium dodecyl sulfate
SE: standard error
SEM: standard error of the mean
SFRO: Societe Francaise de Radiotherapie Oncologique
SGOT: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
SGPT: serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase
SI: Système International
SILAC: stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture
SIRS: systemic inflammatory response syndrome
SMA: smooth muscle alpha-actin
SMO: smoothened
SOD: superoxide dismutase
SP: substance P
sp act: specific activity
SPARC: secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine
SPINK1: serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1
sr: steradian (solid angle)
SROC: summary receiver operating characteristic
SSC: standard saline citrate
SSCP: single-strand conformation polymorphism
SSRI: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
STZ: streptozotocin
SUV: standard uptake value
Sv: sievert (dose equivalent)
SV-40: simian virus 40

T: tesla (magnetic flux density)
t1/2: half-life: half-time
T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus
TACE: tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme
TAP: trypsin activation peptide
TBS: Tris-buffered saline
TCA: trichloroacetic acid
TdR: thymidine deoxyribose
TGF: transforming growth factor
TGN: trans-Golgi network
Th: T helper (Th1 cell: etc.)
tid: ter in die (three times a day)
TIMP: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase
TIU: trypsin inhibitor units
TKI: tyrosine kinase inhibitor
TLC: thin layer chromatography
TNF: tumor necrosis factor
TP53INP1: tumor protein p53-induced nuclear protein1
TPN: total parenteral nutrition
Tris: tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
TRH: thyrotropin releasing hormone
TRITC: tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate
tRNA: transfer RNA
TXA2: thromboxane A2
TXB2: thromboxane B2

u: unified atomic mass unit(s)
U: unit(s)
UC: ulcerative colitis
UDCA: ursodeoxycholic acid
UDP: uridine 5'-diphosphate
UDT: uridine triphosphate
UPR: unfolded protein response
US: ultrasonography
USP: US Pharmacopeia
UV: ultraviolet

V: volt (electrical potential - voltage)
VAS: visual analogue scale
VCAM-1: vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor
VEGFR: vascular endothelial growth factor receptor
VIP: vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
VLA-4: very late activation antigen-4
VLDL: very low density lipoprotein
vol: volume
vs.: versus

W: watt (power)
Wb: weber (magnetic flux)
WBC: white blood cell
WBN/Kob: Wistar-Bonn/Kobori
WGA: wheat germ agglutinin
WHO: World Health Organization
wk: week
wt: weight

x: magnification

yr: year

W: ohm (resistance)

Combining Prefixes

T: tera- (1012)
G: giga- (109) [billion (U.S.)]
M: mega- (106) [million (U.S.)]
k: kilo- (103) [thousand]
h: hecto- (102) [hundred]
da: deca- (101) [ten]
d: deci- (10-1) [tenth]
c: centi- (10-2) [hundredth]
m: milli- (10-3) [thousandth]
µ: micro- (10-6) [millionth (U.S.)]
n: nano- (10-9) [billionth (U.S.)]
p: pico- (10-12)
f: femto- (10-15)
a: atto- (10-18)

(Last Update: February 2012)